Recent to Past Occurrences: Internet Resources

Armenians in Turkey | Stalin's Forced Famines | Nazi Holocaust | Pol Pot in Cambodia | Rwandan Genocide | Bosnia | Darfur | Trail of Tears | Nanking | Country Briefs


The following websites will help you with your project

Armenians in Turkey

The first genocide of the 20th century occurred when two millions Armenians living in Turkey were eliminated from their historic homeland through forced deportations and massacres during the government of the Young Turks from 1915 to 1917 in the Ottoman Empire.  Even today, the Republic of Turkey rejects the notion that the event constitutes genocide.

Armenian National Institute

(Good for: detailed information about the events that led up to the genocide, where it happened, type of government, how it ended and witness accounts)

(Good for: answers the frequently asked questions about the genocide, such as who was involved, how many people died, international response, etc.)

This is an award winning web site that has been designed to educate students about the Armenian genocide.

(Good for: information about the genocide, testimonies from survivors, and an interactive timeline of events)


Stalin's Forced Famines

Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, set in motion events designed to cause a famine in the Ukraine to destroy the people there seeking independence from his rule.  As a result, an estimated 7,000,000,000 persons perished in this farming area, known as the breadbasket of Europe, with the people deprived of the food they had grown with their own hands.

Peace Pledge Union Information – Genocide - Bosnia

(Good for: information about where this famine occurred, the policies involving the forced famine and key figures involved, how it ended)


United Human Rights – Genocide - Ukraine

(Good for: information about the famine, number of people killed, Stalin’s Five Year Plan)


BBC News – Forced Famine

(Good for: a survivor’s account and discusses the current fragile relationship between the Ukraine and Russia)



Pol Pot in Cambodia

An attempt by Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot to form a Communist peasant farming society resulted in the deaths of 25 percent of the country's population from starvation, overwork and executions.  It is estimated that 2,000,000,000 people died between 1975 and 1979.

United Human Rights – Pol Pot Massacre

(Good for: information about where this genocide occurred, the policies, and key groups involved, how it ended)


Peace Pledge Union Information – Genocide - Cambodia

(Good for: events that led up to the genocide, during and after the genocide; victims involved and witness accounts)


PBS – Frontline – Chronicle of Survival

(Good for: information about where the genocide happened, key groups involved, links to witness accounts and the aftermath)



Historically, Bosnia is made of three diverse groups, the Serbs (othodox Christians), the Croats (Catholics), and ethnic Albanians (Muslims). The historical ethnic and religious differences  is believed to have led policies of agression and ethnic cleansing against Muslims between 1992 and 1995. The Bosnian government charged Serbia with committing genocide at the International Court of Justice, however, in 2007, the court ruled that Serbia was not complicit in genocide but did not take action to prevent incidences of genocide in Srebrencia.  There is disagreement between the Serbian and Bosnian government about the possibility and/or scope of the genocide.

The B  Peace Pledge Union Information – Genocide - Bosnia

(Good for: information about where the genocide happened, key groups involved, links to witness accounts and the aftermath)


Bosnian Genocide – Wikipedia

(Good for: information about where this genocide occurred, key figures involved, the controversy surrounding this genocide and external links to other sites)


History Place – Genocide - Bosnia

Good for: answers the frequently asked questions about the genocide, such as who was involved, how many people died, international response, etc.)


Rwandan Genocide

There was a mass killing of an estimated 800,000 ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus by two extremist Hutu militia groups, the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi, for about 100 days in 1994. Similar to the Jewish Holocaust, the international community did nothing and were severely criticized. Hundreds of thousands of Hutus fled to Zaire causing the Great Lakes Refugee Crisis.

History Place - Genocide in Rwanda

(Good for: background information about the Rwandan genocide)

BBC Rwanda: 10 years on

(Good for: information about why it happened, accounts from survivors and killers, how it ended and the aftermath)

Frontline: Ghost of Rwanda

(Good for finding out the international community reaction, examining the aftermath, a comparative study of the Rwandan genocide with the Jewish Holocaust)



An ongoing armed conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan, mainly between the Janjaweed (translated: "devils on horsebacks"), a militia group recruited from the tribes of the Abbala (camel herding Arabs), and the non-Baggara people (mostly land-tilling tribes) of the region.  The Sudanese government, while publicly denying that it supports the Janjaweeds, has provided money and assistance and has participated in joint attacks with the group, systematically targeting ethnic groups in Darfur.  The conflicts began in July 2003.

The genocide in Darfur has taken the lives of an estimated 400,000 people, and more than 2.5 million are displaced and in grave danger of more violence and starvation.


Frontline/World - Sudan

(Good for: brief information about the Rwandan genocide, key figures, facts and stats about the government and history,  humanitarian efforts and witness accounts)


Genocide in Darfur

(Good for: brief information about the Rwandan genocide and to find out what international activist groups are doing to help and how you can help as well)


Darfur Conflict - Wikipedia

(Good for: overview of the crisis in Darfur, including the claims of genocide, international response, key organizations involved and governments involved)


BBC News – Sudan – A nation divided       BBC Best Link

(Good for: Current and in-depth news and features on the troubled nation, including reports on the Darfur crisis, poverty and the regional conflicts, witness and survivor accounts, peacekeeping efforts)


Trail of Tears

The Trail of Tears was the relocation and movement of Native Americans, including people  of the Cherokee, Seminole, Creek, and Choctaw nations from their homelands in the Southeastern United states to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States.


The Trail of Tears  from PBS

Trail of Tears National Historic Trail (U.S. National Park Service)

Trail of Tears

Trail of Tears: Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity

The North Little Rock Site: Interpretive Contexts Chickasaw

Seminole Tribe of Florida History: Indian Resistance and Removal

Muscogee (Creek) Removal

The Trail of Tears and the Forced Relocation of the Cherokee Nation, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan

Cherokee Heritage Documentation Center

Cherokee Nation Cultural Resource Center

Trail of Tears - The Dream We Dreamed

Cherokee Indian Removal, Encyclopedia of Alabama


In December of 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into China's capital city of Nanking and proceeded to murder 300,000 out of 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city.


Nanking Genocide from the History Place

BBC News: Nanjing remembers massacre victims

Online Documentary: The Nanking Atrocities A master's degree thesis that delves into the atrocity

"Denying Genocide: The Evolution of the Denial of the Holocaust and the Nanking Massacre," college research paper by Joseph Chapel, 2004

English translation of a classified Chinese document on the Nanjing Massacre

Japanese Imperialism and the Massacre in Nanjing by Gao Xingzu, Wu Shimin, Hu Yungong, & Cha Ruizhen

Kirk Denton, "Heroic Resistance and Victims of Atrocity: Negotiating the Memory of Japanese Imperialism in Chinese Museums"

The Nanjing Incident: Recent Research and Trends by David Askew in the Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies, April 2002

Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall

'No massacre in Nanking,' Japanese lawmakers say

The Rape of Nanking - Nanjing Massacre -English Language Edition - 1:17:17 - Aug 25, 2006

Rape of Nanking Original reports from The Times

The Rape of Nanking — Nanjing Massacre — English Language Edition. Two hour web documentary.

War and reconciliation: a tale of two countries

Booknotes interview with Iris Chang on The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II, January 11, 1998.



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An attempt by Khmer Rouge leader, Pol Pot, to form a Communist peasant farming society resulted in the deaths of 25 percent of the country's population from starvation, overwork and executions. This tragedy happened from 1976 to 1979. If you want to read a first person story about the tragedy check out a 13 year old boy's tale of the genocide in Cambodia.


For one hundred days in 1994, up to 800,000 Tutsis were killed by Hutu militia using clubs and machetes, with as many as 10,000 killed each day. This is a true story about what happened to a Rwandan girl that will break your heart. Here is an interesting article on what countries won't be doing for Rwanda.


In the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovinia, conflict between the three main ethnic groups, the Serbs, Croats, and Muslims, resulted in genocide committed by the Serbs against the Muslims in Bosnia. You can read a first hand account at this Bosnia genocide site.

The Soviet Union

Stalin was determined to crush the spirit of the "Kulaks" who rebelled against the Soviet movement. These people were ordinary farmers with ordinary families. The farmers grew the grain that supplied the whole of Europe. Then it was ruthlessly taken from them. All of it. The result was the death of 7 million people.


How you can do to help


Genocide Intervention

This website focuses on stopping genocide throughout the world through education, advocacy, fundraising and networking.

Genocide Watch

This website focuses on preventing and averting genocide.  It provides good statistical and up to date information of information of genocides that happened in the past and the current situation in Darfur, Sudan.


Country Profile


CIA World Factbook

Using “The World Factbook” this governmental website includes the people of that country, maps, military presence, and transnational issues.

Adapted from


History Place – Genocide in the 20th Century
Includes links to Bosnia-Herzagovina, Rwanda, Cambodia, Holocaust, China, Stalin, Armenia/Turkey - also includes information on the United Nation

Genocide Watch
International organization to stop genocide United Nations Human Rights
UN's comprehensive site on human right

Institute for the Study of Genocide/ International

Association of Genocide Scholars

Compare your definition of genocide with the
ones by Social Scientists